Pharmacology II

Pharmacology can be briefly defined as a study of interaction of a drug with living organism at all hierarchic levels, i.e., from the molecular and cellular level to that of complete organism. Recent intense development particularly of the molecular and cellular pharmacology has enabled an understanding of the mechanisms of drug action. Teaching pharmacology is also focused on clinical aspects of drug actions in humans. In practice, the knowledge of pharmacology enables, in close co-operation with physicians, rational, safe and effective pharmacotherapy.

Teaching of pharmacology in a study programme Pharmacy is formally divided in two closely consequent parts – Pharmacology I (summer semester of the 3rd section of the study) and Pharmacology II (winter semester of the 4th section of the study).

Syllabus

General pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics

  • Types of drug transport (translocation) in organism
  • Absorption of drugs, influencing factors
  • Distribution of drugs in organism, influencing factors
  • Distribution - physiological barriers
  • Metabolism of drugs, influencing factors
  • Mechanisms of drugs excretion, influencing factors
  • Basic pharmacokinetic parameters, calculation, practical significance in pharmacotherapy
  • Factors influencing pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics – how drugs act

  • Mechanisms of drugs action
  • Quantitative (graded) and quantal (population) dose (concentration)- response relationships. Therapeutic index
  • Drugs interactions
  • Adverse and toxic effects of drugs
  • Drug dependence, basic types
  • Preclinical testing of drugs
  • Clinical testing of drugs
  • Pharmacology and human genome (pharmacogenomics, gene therapy)

Special Pharmacology

Pharmacology of the peripheral nervous system

  • Autonomic nervous system – muscarinic agonists (parasympathomimetics). Inhibitors of cholinesterase
  • Autonomic nervous system – muscarinic antagonists (parasympatholytics)
  • Autonomic nervous system – adrenoceptor agonists (sympathomimetics)
  • Autonomic nervous system – adrenoceptor antagonists (sympatholytics)
  • Neuromuscular-blocking drugs
  • Local anaesthetics

Pharmacology of the central nervous system

  • Overview of neurotransmitters
  • General anaesthetics
  • Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs
  • Antipsychotic drugs
  • Antidepressant drugs
  • Antiepileptic drugs. Overview of centrally acting muscle relaxants
  • Neurodegenerative disorders: Drugs in Parkinson´s disease, Alzheimer´s dementia
  • Opioid analgesics
  • CNS stimulants. Psychotomimetic agents (hallucinogens)
  • Ethanol – pharmacology, toxicology

Pharmacology of cardiovascular system

  • Pharmacotherapy of chronic heart failure
  • Antidysrhythmic drugs
  • Pharmacotherapy of coronary heart disease: Therapy of angina pectoris. Overview of therapy of acute myocardial infarction
  • Vasoactive drugs
  • Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Antagonists of angiotensin receptors AT1
  • Pharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension

Atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism

  • Atherosclerosis – risk factors, pharmacological and non-pharmacological prevention
  • Pharmacotherapy of dyslipidaemias

Pharmacology of inflammation and immune response

  • Histamine. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Antirheumatoid drugs. Drugs for treatment of gout
  • Immunomodulators: Immunosuppressant drugs. Overview of immunostimulants

Pharmacology of the endocrine system

  • Thyroid hormones. Treatment of hypo- and hyperthyroidism
  • Diabetes mellitus. Treatment with insulin
  • Diabetes mellitus. Treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents
  • Obesity and possibilities of treatment
  • Hormones of adrenal cortex: Glucocorticoids
  • Bone metabolism: Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis

Pharmacology of the blood and haemopoietic system

Drugs acting on haemostasis and fibrinolysis

  • Drugs acting on the haemopoietic system: Treatment of anaemia by iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. Overview of haemopoietic growth factors

Pharmacology of the respiratory system

  • Pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Drugs used for cough

Pharmacology of the kidney

  • Diuretics

Pharmacology of the gastrointestinal tract

  • Treatment of peptic ulcer disease
  • Drugs affecting vomiting
  • Therapy of constipation and acute diarrhoea: laxatives and antidiarrhoeal agents

Pharmacology of the reproductive system

  • Female sex hormones, therapeutic use: Hormonal contraception. Hormone replacement therapy
  • Male sex hormones. Anabolic steroids. Overview of treatment of erectile dysfunction
  • Drugs acting on the uterus

Vitamins

  • Overview, clinical uses, adverse (toxic) effects

Chemotherapy of infections

Antibacterial drugs

  • Sulfonamides. Trimethoprim
  • b-lactam antibiotics - penicillins
  • b-lactam antibiotics – cephalosporins and other b-lactam antibiotics. Bacitracin. Vancomycin. Polymixins
  • Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Macrolides. Lincosamides. Fusidic acid
  • Fluoroquinolones. Metronidazole. Nitrofurantoin

Antimycobacterial agents

  • Antituberculosis drugs. Overview of antileprosy drugs

Antiviral agents

Antifungal drugs

Antiparasitic drugs

  • Therapy of protozoal infections: trichomoniasis, toxoplasmosis, amoebosis. Overview of other protozoal infections
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Anthelminthic drugs in helminth infections caused by: T. saginata, T. solium, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides. Overview of other helminth infections

Cancer chemotherapy

  • Overview of anticancer drugs

Literature

Rang, HP., Dale, MM., Ritter, JM., Moore, PK. Pharmacology. 5th Edition. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone, 2003: 797 p.

Bennett, PN., Brown, MJ. Clinical Pharmacology. 9th Edition. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone, 2003: 789 p.

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