Monitoring of Environment

The subject is meant for persons who are interested in the state of the environment in relation to the human health from the pharmacist point of view. The lectures are divided to hygienically-epidemiologic part and ecotoxicologic part. The lectures include the topics of air, soil and water quality monitoring, influence of workplace environment on human health. Ecotoxicology demonstrates correlations in ecosystem, define the possible risks results from the pharmacist profession.

The summary of the most frequent and legislatively requested biotest is coupled with the simulation examples of concrete biologically active and pharmaceutically important substances in the environment. Further the chapter about real risk assessment of toxic substances in environment is evolved.

Syllabus

Lectures:

Ecosystem (Principles of Environmental Processes on the Examples of Local and Global Ecosystem, Substance Cycle, Energy And Information Flow in Ecosystem, Basic Biogeochemical Cycles)

  • monitoring requirements
  • Monitoring of Air Pollution
  • pollution sources, pollutants
  • indoor pollution, outdoor pollution, workplace pollution
  • measurement methods of air pollution (emissions, immissions, indoor environment, working environment, olfactometry)

Water Pollution Monitoring

  • wastewater
  • methods of water pollution measuring

Food Contamination Monitoring

  • drinking water
  • extraneous substances – additives and contaminants
  • naturally occurring toxic substances

Things in Common Use and Risk of Contamination by Substances Which They Contain

  • methods of measurement
  • products which are in contact with food and meals
  • products which are in contact with water and for water purification
  • cosmetics

Soil Pollution Monitoring

  • toys and products for children
  • examples of exposure test for some substances

Ecotoxicology

  • physical factors
  • the scientific discipline principle
  • ecotoxicology concept – the principle of ecotoxicology research
  • retrospective and prospective study

Ecotests

  • experimental determination of ecotoxicity
  • classification according to the exposure time, ecosystems, endpoints
  • standard and alternative test
  • biotests
  • aquatic and terrestrial environment
  • tests with producers
  • tests with consumers
  • tests with decomposers
  • use of biotests for common ecotoxicity determination (pure chemical substances or mixtures – “new” or priority pollutants, REACH, tests application in

Biological Early-Warning Systems

  • prediction of environmentally important parameters of substances (SAR, QSAR, bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biodegradability prediction, degradation rate)
  • biomarkers use for evaluation of toxic stress

Concrete Examples of Appearance of Pharmaceutically Important Substances In Environment

  • determination of toxicity risk
  • methods of analyses of individual compartments and simulation of prediction in ecosystem

Practical classes

  • ecotoxicity evaluation
  • individual tests preparation (physiochemical evaluation), incubation of tested organisms
  • experiment opening (tested substance dilution, dosing of individual experimental organisms, abiotic factors of experiment)
  • continuous evaluation of experiment
  • evaluation of individual experiments, statistical evaluation, periods of experiments are different – this practicals are divided into parts, comparison of individual tests results, comparison of results in study group and drawing conclusions

Literature

Kümmerer K.: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment (Source, Fate, Effects and Risks), Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2001, 265 p.

Thompson K. Clive, Wadhia K., Loibner Andreas P.: Environmental Toxicity Testing, Blackwell Publishing Canada, 2005, 388 p.

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