Pharmacognosy II

Pharmacognosy is a specific discipline taught only at pharmaceutical faculties. It deals with the versatile studies of starting materials and substances of natural origin (obtained from plants, animals, or microorganisms) intended for use in human and veterinary medicine.



  • Pharmacognosy – introduction, classification of natural products
  • Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, polysaccharides, gums and mucilages)
  • Lipids
  • Amino acids, peptides, and proteins
  • Glycosides – general aspects
  • Phenolic glycosides
  • Coumarins
  • Flavonoids
  • Anthraquinone glycosides
  • Cardiac glycosides
  • Saponins
  • Glucosinolates
  • Cyanogenic glycosides
  • Iridoids
  • Tannins
  • Essential oils, balsams, and resins
  • Alkaloids – general aspects
  • Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids
  • Tropane alkaloids
  • Pyrrolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids
  • Isoquinoline alkaloids
  • Indole alkaloids
  • Quinoline alkaloids
  • Imidazole alkaloids
  • Terpenoid alkaloids
  • Steroidal alkaloids
  • Purine alkaloids
  • Vitamins
  • Antibiotics


Practical exercises

  • Principles of pharmacopoeial qualitative and quantitative control of natural products (identity tests, comprising macro- and microscopic characters and chemical tests, purity tests, and quantitative determinations)
  • Determination of foreign matter, ash, loss on drying and extractable matter
  • Evaluation of drugs containing carbohydrates
  • Evaluation of drugs containing oils and fats
  • Evaluation of drugs containing glycosides
  • Evaluation of drugs containing tannins
  • Evaluation of drugs containing essential oils
  • Evaluation of drugs containing alkaloids


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