Pathological Biochemistry

Pathological biochemistry (pathobiochemistry) deals with disorders of biochemical pathways and biochemical changes in human organism under pathological situations. The discipline aims to explain diseases at the molecular level. The major goal of Pathobiochemistry in the Pharmacy program is to prepare students for future understanding molecular targetting of modern pharmacotherapeutics, taught in Pharmacology.


Introduction, history of the discipline

Oxidation stress, radical diseases

Biochemistry of inflammation

  • Mediators of inflammation. Biogenic amines, kinins, eicosanoids, metabolism of arachidonic acid
  • metabolism in inflammation as a target for drugs

Physiological and pathological biochemistry of lipids

  • Digestion and absorption from GIT, disorders
  • Lipoproteins, structure, metabolism
  • Dyslipoproteinaemias
  • Biochemistry of atherosclerosis
  • Lipidoses

Physiological and pathological biochemistry of carbohydrates

  • Digestion and absorption from GIT, disorders
  • Disorders of main metabolic pathways of carbohydrates
  • Disorders of fructose, and galactose metabolism
  • Glycogenoses
  • Regulation of blood glucose and its disorders
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Glycoproteins and glycosylation, its disorders

Diabetes mellitus as a complex metabolic disorder

  • Biochemistry of acute diabetes
  • Molecular basis of late consequences of diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome

Physiological and pathological biochemistry of proteins and amino acids

  • Digestion of proteins, absorption of amino acids, disorders
  • Formation and metabolism of ammonia
  • Disorders of ornithine cycle, hepatogenic encephalopathy
  • Intracellular degradation of proteins and its disorders

Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines

  • Regulation of purine metabolism, hyperuricaemia, gout
  • Regulation of pyrimidine metabolism, orotaciduria

Inherited errors of metabolism

Principles, causes and consequences of „molecular diseases“. Examples of inherited disorders of metabolism with focus on metabolism of amino acids and on glycosylation disorders. Biochemical screening and diagnosis of inherited errors of metabolism.

Physiological and pathological biochemistry of porphyrines

  • Synthesis and metabolism of heme, regulation and disorders
  • Porphyrias, hemoglobinopathies

Pathological biochemistry of nervous system

  • Neurochemistry of neurodegenerative diseases: Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's dementia
  • Neurochemical causes of epileptic seizures
  • Neurochemistry of schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders

Pathological biochemistry of hormones

  • General aspects of hormonal signalization and its disorders
  • Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
  • Adrenal steroid hormones
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Hormones of gonads

Biochemistry of tumors

  • Physical and chemical carcinogens
  • Biological factors in carcinogenesis. Tumorigenic transformation.
  • Viral tumors. Viral and cellular oncogenes. Growth factors
  • Laboratory diagnostics of tumors


Preparation of literature reviews on main topics – hyperlipoproteinemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes, tumors, inflammation, protein degradation, neurodegenerative disorders.


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