General Biochemistry

General Biochemistry provides you basic knowledge of the biochemistry of mammalian cells which is essential for your next study at Faculty of Pharmacy.


  1. Introduction to Biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides
    Essential information about the subject, requirement for exam, physicochemical and biological properties of amino acids, peptide bond – formation and properties, peptides – general properties, nomenclature, and importance for living organisms
  2. Proteins
    General properties, classification and importance for living organisms, structure and spatial arrangement of proteins with respect to their function , relationship between conformation and biological effects of proteins, denaturation
  3. Enzymes
    Structure and mechanism of action of enzymes, effects of different factors on enzymatic activity, inhibition of catalytic activity of enzymes
  4. Enzyme Kinetics
    Lineweaver-Burk plot, significance of Vmax.and KM values, regulation of enzyme action in cells, regulatory enzymes and their control, specificity of enzymes, three-dimensional structures of enzymes, active site, isoenzymes, cofactors, coenzymes, nomenclature and classification of enzymes
  5. Thermodynamics of the Living Systems
    Concept of thermodynamics (TMD), laws of TMD, free energy, equilibrium, criterion of reaction spontaneity, coupled reactions, ATP – hydrolysis, biological significance, redox potential –importance, relationship between free energy and redox potential.
  6. Metabolism of Carbohydrates I
    Carbohydrates - general information, formation of ring structures, glycolysis (chemical strategy of glycolysis, basic types of reactions in glycolysis, reactions of glycolysis), energy balance of glycolysis, the Pasteur effect, the Cori cycle
  7. Metabolism of Carbohydrates II
    Regulation of glycolysis (alternative fates of glycolytic intermediates), gluconeogenesis (reactions and localization in the cell, regulation and energy balance), Entry of other carbohydrates into the glycolysis (monosaccharides -fructose, mannose , galactose, disaccharides), pentose phosphate pathway (importance, localization, reactions and regulation), key intermediates of metabolism, metabolic fates of pyruvate, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
  8. Glycogen Metabolism
    Biosynthesis, breakdown and regulation, activation of kinases and phosphorylases, different metabolic pathway of glucose in various cells
  9. Citric Acid Cycle
    Overview of the citric acid cycle, reactions and regulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC), amphibolic character of the CAC, anaplerotic sequences of the CAC, glyoxylate cycle
  10. Lipid Metabolism I
    Physiological role of lipids, fatty acids - the chemical nature , triacylglycerols – biosynthesis and degradation, control, utilization of fatty acids for energy production - activation, transport and reaction sequence for  degradation, modifications of oxidative degradation, energy yield, regulation
  11. Lipid Metabolism II
    Ketone bodies, structures, biosynthesis and control, peroxisomal oxidation of FA, reaction sequence for synthesis of palmitic acid and other fatty acids, comparison of degradation and biosynthesis of FA, regulation, metabolic interrelations of FA and carbohydrates in human body
  12. Membrane Lipids, Steroids, Cholesterol
    Overview,  glycolipids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, structure, physiological  role, biosynthesis and degradation, cholesterol : membrane component, precursor of bile salts and steroid hormones, synthesis of cholesterol, regulatory enzyme, regulation of biosynthesis, degradation of cholesterol : bile acids and steroid hormones, vitamin D
  13. Amino Acids I
    Biological importance, energy yield, precursors of many biomolecules, ketogenic and glucogenic AA, metabolic reactions of amino- and carboxy-groups and their biological usefulness
  14. Amino Acids II
    Urea cycle – reaction sequence, control of urea cycle, location, metabolic degradation of AA carbon skeletons (individual AA)
  15. Amino Acids IIII
    Reduction of N2, nitrogenase complex, assimilation NH4 to AA, nitrogenous derivatives of AA. -glutamyl cycle function in AA transport
  16. Transport in Organism, Mitochondrion
    Transport across membranes, nonmediated, passive and active transport, transport in mitochondrion
  17. Respiratory Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    Significance, localization, composition and function of complexes, cytochromes, inhibition of respiratory chain, Q cycle, respiratory control, chemiosmotic hypothesis, coupling of oxidation and phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and regulation
  18. Metabolic Interrelationship
    Major metabolic pathways – localization, activity, control mechanisms, starve-feed cycle, well-fed state, early fasting state, fasting state, early refed state, glucose homeostasis, control mechanisms at all states, metabolic interrelationship in obesity, exercise and ethanol ingestion
  19. Cell-Cell Signalling I
    Specific receptors mediating the cell signaling, G - proteins, cAMP a mediator of the action of many hormones, protein kinases, phospholipase C signalling pathway, receptors with enzyme function, lipophilic hormones and their cytosolic receptors
  20. Cell-Cell Signalling II
    Structure and function of hormones, hormone systems and hormone hierarchy
  21. Heme and Hemoglobin, Nucleotides
    Synthesis of heme and its regulation, metabolism of heme to bile pigments, biological functions of nucleotides
  22. Metabolism of Nucleotides
    Synthesis of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, degradation of nucleotides, salvage pathways
  23. Basics of Neurochemistry
    Signaling in the brain; electrical signaling in neurons – resting potential, action potential, voltage-dependent ion channels; intercellular communication between neurons, synapses, excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, receptors of neurotransmitters
  24. Basics of Xenobiochemistry
    Introduction, history, cytochrome P450s, flavin-containing monooxygenases, conjugation pathways, induction and inhibition of drug metabolism, factors affecting drug metabolism, chiral aspects of drug metabolism, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of drug metabolism
  25. Muscle Contraction
    Structure and organization of skeletal muscle, skeletal muscle proteins, energy for muscle contraction, role of calcium, mechanism of muscle contraction, smooth muscle contraction, rigor mortis, tetanus
  26. Biochemistry of Vision
    Composition of eye, metabolism, major proteins involved in the phototransduction cascade, process of visual transduction, color vision

Practical exercises 

  • Qualitative and quantitative determination of amino acids.
  • Properties of protein solutions.
  • Protein assay.
  • Dialysis and gel filtration.
  • Identification of sugars.
  • Qualitative analysis of urine.
  • Measurement of enzyme activity.
  • Enzyme kinetics.
  • Influence of modulators on enzyme activity in vitro.
  • Determination of the type of inhibition.
  • Effect of pH and inorganic ions on enzyme activity.


  • Enzymes, enzyme kinetics, inhibition
  • Metabolism of nutrients and their interrelationship
  • Regulation of metabolic pathways


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