Instrumental Methods

The aim of the subject is to provide the students with firm and sufficiently wide theoretical and methodological fundamentals for pursuing (in a rational way) instrumental analysis of inorganic and organic substances. The teaching is focused on the explanation of theoretical aspects of instrumental methods and putting the accent on problem-solving tuition. In practical training individual approach of students to solving analytical problems is required.


  • Introduction to instrumental methods, their advantages, drawbacks, classification of instrumental methods, their application in qualitative and quantitative analysis.
  • Optical methods, interaction of radiation with particulate matter, classification of optical methods, their principles and scope, fundamentals of luminescence analysis, practical use of optical methods.
  • Spectrophotometry in UV spectral region, types of electron transfer, light absorption of organic compounds, absorption spectrum, absorption band, absorption coefficient, double-beam spectrophotometers, diode-array detector, analytical applications – identification, purity of substances, quantitative assay, calibration curve, analysis of multi-component systems.
  • Infra-red spectrophotometry, types of vibrations, characteristic vibrations of functional groups, absorption spectrum, absorption bands, instrumentation, measuring techniques, analytical applications – interpretation of IR spectra, identification, purity, structure of organic compounds.
  • Flame photometry, refractometry, polarimetry, principles, and analytical applications.
  • Electroanalytical methods, their classification and principles. Potentiometry, principles, instrumentation, selection of electrode system, ion-selective electrodes, potentiometric titrations and their evaluation, analytical applications. Conductimetry, principles, conductimetric titrations and other applications.
  • Voltammetry and polarography, principles, instrumentation, qualitative and quantitative analysis.
  • Radioanalytical methods, their classification, principles, applications.
  • Separation methods, classification according to the principle of separation. Chromatographic methods and their classification.
  • Gas chromatography, instrumentation, analytical applications.
  • Liquid chromatography in planar and packed-bed arrangement. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC, HPTLC). Paper chromatography. Instrumentation and analytical applications.


  • Rücker G., Neugebauer M.,Willems G.G.: Instrumentelle pharmazeutische Analytik, WVG Stuttgart 2001.
  • Robinson J.W., Skelly Frame E.M., Frame II G.M.. – Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Marcel Dekker, New York, , 2005

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