Microbiology

Students become acquainted with the structure of the microbial cell and viruses, the bases of pathogenesis and epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the management of the infections caused by the most important representatives of infectious agents.

Syllabus

GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY

  • Place of microbes in kindoms of organisms/nature; role of microorganisms in the ecosystems and the geochemical cycles.
  • Importance of microorganisms for humans.
  • Relationships between microorganisms. Indigenous microbial flora.
  • Structural features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; types of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms in/of microorganisms.
  • Nutrition and growth of microorganisms. Growth factors, prototrophy, auxotrophy, growth curve
  • Pathogenicity and virulence. Virulence factors of microorganisms.
  • Principles of antiinfective immunity.
  • Fundamentals of epidemiology of infectious diseases. Vaccination.

MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

BACTERIOLOGY

  • Structure and function of bacterial cell; bacterial morphology. Microscopy of microorganisms.
  • Bacterial genetics. Recombination of bacterial genes. Plasmids. Transposons.
  • Bacterial classification.
  • Medically important bacteria: Gram-positive cocci, Gram‑negative rods (incl. pseudomonads, enterobacteria, Haemophilus), mycobacteria, actinomycetes, spirochetes, rickettsias, chlamydias.
  • Prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial infections.

MYCOLOGY

  • Structure of fungal cell.
  • Genetics of fungi. Fungal taxonomy.
  • Superficial, subcutaneous and systemic fungal infections.
  • Mycetismus, mycotoxicoses, and mycoallergy.
  • Prophylaxis and therapy of fungal infections.

VIROLOGY

  • Characteristics of viral particles.
  • Multiplication of viruses.
  • Viral classification.
  • Viral infections.
  • Prophylaxis and therapy viral infections.

MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY

  • Basic characteristics of protozoa, helminths, annelides, and arthropods pathogenic for humans.
  • Classification of parasitic protozoa, helminths, annelides and arthropods.
  • Diseases caused by protozoa, helminths, annelides and arthropods parasitic for humans.
  • Prophylaxis and therapy of infections caused by parasitic protozoa and helminths. Protection against vectors of human infections.

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY

  • Survey of antimicrobial agents.
  • Characterization of main types of antimicrobial agents.
  • Mode of action and resistance to main groups of antimicrobial agents.
  • Survey of main classes of antibacterial antibiotics and chemotherapeutics: ß-lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides, polypeptide antibiotics, rifamycins, sulfonamides, oxazolididones, etc.
  • Antifungal antibiotics and chemoterapeutics.
  • Antiviral agents.
  • Antiprotozoal and antihelminth agents, repelents.
  • Survey and characterization of desinfectants, preservatives and antiseptics. Factors affecting choice of desinfectants, preservatives and antiseptics
  • Methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  • Microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products, raw materials, auxiliary substances, package.
  • Source of microbial contamination. Possible ways of preservation of pharmaceuticals against undesirable action of microorganisms.
  • Good manufacturing practice.
  • Quality and sterility control of pharmaceutical procedures.
  • Methods of sterilization. Sterility testing. Sensitivity of microorganisms to sterilization process and its expression.

Literature

  • Hanlon G, Hodges N.: Essential Microbiology for Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Denyer S. P.,Norman A. Hodges Gorman S.P. (Editors): Hugo and Russell's Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 7th Edition 2008, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 978-1-4051-4103-1, 496 pp.

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