History and Organization of Pharmacy

Theory of pharmacy, basic terminology in pharmacy, law in pharmacy, healing, pharmaceutics, pharmacy practice, drug, medicinal product.

History of pharmacy. Development of History of Pharmacy as a science. Periodic changes in pharmaceutical development, relationship with general development of society. History of apothecaries and pharmacy practice with emphasis on situation in the Czech Republic. Pharmaceutical education. Church pharmacy and apothecaries. Military pharmacy.


Natural Healing

Pharmacy as a part of natural healing. Natural healing in prehistoric ages. Life in primeval ages and theories about etiology and treatment of diseases. Popular, church and laic ways of healing. Healing practices in ancient China, India, Egypt and Greece.
Separation of pharmacy out of natural healing. Roman, Byzantine, Arabic medicine and pharmacy. Monastic medicine and pharmacy in Europe. Monastic medicine and pharmacy in Czech region.

Pharmacy Practice (Apothecaries)

Pharmaceutical profession has developed to a relatively independent, separated and unified field. Boom in laic medicine since the 8th century. Periodic development of pharmacy and pharmacy practice. Pre-classical and classical pharmacy in Europe. Beginning and development of pharmacies in our region. University establishment and pharmacy. Alchemy and pharmacy. Laws, formularies, price-lists, education of pharmacists. Contribution of pharmacists to scientific and technical development. Golden age in pharmacy. Church (religious) pharmacy and apothecaries. Organization of health services and its development.

Pharmacy (Pharmaceutics)

Pharmaceutical field/profession has differentiated.
Social conditions and differentiation of pharmacy. Formation of pharmaceutical education, industry, research and control. Pharmaceutical supply and wholesale. Pharmacy Practice – as an integrated pharmaceutical profession. Rise and development of military pharmacy.
Formularies (pharmacopoeia), pharmaceutical rate book. Pharmaceutical compulsory, scientific and professional organizations. Development of pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical journals. Famous Czech pharmacists – their life, activities and importance for presence.

Integration of pharmacy

Relatively independent pharmaceutical profession has been integrated into health service.
Present world pharmacy. Socialistic era in Czech-Slovakia pharmacy. Transformation of Health service and pharmacy after 1989. Transformation in individual pharmaceutical branches. Transformation in apothecaries and pharmacy practice.


  • David L. Cowen, William H. Helfand: PHARMACY an Illustrated History, Harry N. Abrams, INC., Publishers, New York 1990.

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