Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry gives students a necessary theoretical basis and enables them to acquire knowledge of principles of physical-chemical methods of measurement. This subject offers students a fundamental knowledge necessary in study of both other consequent subjects of a general basis of natural sciences and pharmaceutical disciplines. The syllabus has been set on to prepare students in an optimal way for their consequent education.

Syllabus

Introduction

  • A content of physical chemistry and its relation to pharmaceutical disciplines.

Physico-chemical properties of substances, photochemistry

  • Polarity of substances, dipole moment, relative permitivity,
  • Bonding and non-bonding interactions,
  • roentgen diffraction, polymorphism, isomorphism
  • isotropy, anisotropy, liquid crystals
  • absorption of electromagnetic radiation, Lambert-Beer´s law,
  • absorption, emission and roentgen spectra of atoms,
  • absorption of light by molecules in UV, VIS and IR region,
  • nuclear magnetic resonance,
  • mass spectrometry,
  • emission molecular spectra (Raman phenomenon, fluorescence and phosphorescence),
  • photochemical reactions.

Thermodynamics

  • 1st law of thermodynamics, internal energy and enthalpy, standard state
  • thermochemistry, reaction heats, thermochemical laws, standard heats of formation and combustion
  • dependence of the reaction heat on temperature
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy,
  • Helmholtz and Gibbs energies,
  • chemical potential,
  • conception of absolute entropy.

Chemical equilibrium

  • Equilibrium constant, equilibrium degree of conversion and its control by reaction, conditions, LeChatelier principle,
  • standard change of Gibbs energy during reaction, temperature dependence of equilibrium constant.

Phase equilibrium

  • Gibbs phase rule, types of systems,
  • one component equilibrium, Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations,
  • two component systems, Henry´s law, sparingly miscible liquids,
  • solubility of solid substances, system solid substance - solvent, melts,
  • Raoult´s law and its application, cryoscopy and ebullioscopy, osmotic pressure
  • three component systems, Nernst distribution law, extraction,
  • ternary diagram, system of three liquids,
  • interfacial phenomena, adsorption on solid surfaces.

Reaction kinetics

  • Reaction rate, mechanisms and order of a reaction,
  • simplex reactions, reactions of 0th, 1st and 2nd order, rate constant, reaction half-life,
  • influence of temperature and other factors on reaction rate,
  • kinetics of simultaneous reactions,
  • catalysis,
  • rate of dissolution.

Electrochemistry

  • Equilibria electrolyte solutions, characteristics of electrolytes, degree of dissociation,
  • Arrhenius classical theory,
  • activity, activity coefficient, ionic strength, Debye-Hückel equations for activity coefficients,
  • dissociation of water, pH, theories of acids and bases,
  • dissociation of weak acids and bases, calculation of their pH, Ostwald´s law,
  • buffers, mechanism of their action, Henderson-Hasselbalch equations, buffer capacity,
  • hydrolysis of salts, hydrolytic constant and calculation of pH of salt solutions,
  • amphoteric electrolytes, isoelectric point,
  • acid-base indicators,
  • solubility of precipitates, solubility product,
  • transport processes electrolyte solutions, conductivity of electrolytes, Kohlrausch law, Arrhenius relation,
  • electrode potential metal/metal-ion system, oxidation-reduction potential, types of electrodes,
  • galvanic cells, measurement of EMV, junction potential,
  • electrolysis, Faraday´s laws, polarization, principle of classical polarography and related voltametric methods.

Colloidal systems

  • Classification of dispersed systems
  • lyophilic, lyophobic and associating colloids,
  • optical, kinetic and electrical properties of colloids,
  • liquid surfaces, surface and interface tension,
  • adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface-active substances, hydrophile-lipophile balance,
  • electric double layer, Nernst and zeta potential, influence of electrolytes.

Practical training

  • Determination of the relative molecular weight by Rast method
  • Determination of the phase diagram in a ternary system containing a single pair of sparingly miscible liquids
  • Determination of the distribution coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids
  • Determination of the t - x curve of binary liquid mixtures by the Sivolobovov method
  • Kinetic measurement of the acetylsalicylic acid decomposition (1st order kinetics)
  • Kinetic measurement of the basic decomposition of ethyl acetate (2nd order kinetics)
  • Potentiometric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid
  • Conductimetric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid or a weak base
  • Measurement of electrode potentials
  • Determination of the critical micellar concentration
  • Spectrophotometric determination of the dissociation constant of an acid-base indicator

Seminars, solution of model problems

  • Concentration of solutions
  • pH of strong and weak acids and bases
  • pH of buffers
  • pH dependence of dissociation of substances
  • electrode potential
  • oxidation-reduction potential
  • osmotic pressure
  • reaction rate
  • half-life of reaction
  • Arrhenius equation
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  • equilibrium constant
  • van’t Hoff´s reaction isobar
  • van’t Hoff´s reaction isotherm
  • thermodynamic feasibility of a reaction
  • distribution coefficient
  • basic thermodynamic quantities

Literature

  • Lázníčková A., Kubíček V.: Physical Chemistry, Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1998
  • Kubíček V., Lázníčková A.: Practical Training by Physical Chemistry, Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2001
  • Atkins P.W.: Physical Chemistry, Fourth Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Melbourne, Tokyo, 1990

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